James Paul Gee
Socializing Intelligence through Academic Talk and Dialogue. Washington, DC: AERA
Publication year: 2015

Over the past few decades a robust body of work has arisen on “accountable talk” as a foundation for learning in school (see Learning Research and Development Center, n.d.). “Accountable talk” is defined as “using evidence to support your opinions, ideas, predictions, and inferences” (see BetterLesson, n.d.; Michaels, O’Connor, & Resnick, 2008). Of course, what counts as evidence and support is relative to different disciplines, domains, practices, and discourse communities (diSessa, 2000; Gee, 2004). Too often in school, young people are engaged in evidential talk unmoored from any outside evidential community that sets standards for what counts as evidence and how it should be represented and marshaled in argument. Of course, classrooms can set their own internal standards, though this can run the danger of “doing school” for its own sake and not for its ties to life outside and beyond school as an institution.