James Paul Gee, Elisabeth Hayes
Burdick, J., Sandlin, J. A., & Schultz, B. D. (2010). Handbook of public pedagogy: education and learning beyond schooling. New York: Routledge., pp. 185-193 (with Elisabeth Hayes)
Publication year: 2010

It has been common for some time to see the formal learning in school compared unfavorably to informal learning out of school (Cross 2006). Humans seem to learn more deeply—and more equitably, without gaps between rich and poor—when they learn outside of school in areas they choose and for which they are motivated (Gee 2003, 2004). Even three-year-olds can become experts on dinosaurs or trains, as Kevin Crowley has shown in his work on “islands of expertise” (Crowley & Jacobs 2002).