James Paul Gee
Böck, M., & Pachler, N. (2013). Multimodality and social semiosis: communication, meaning-making, and learning in the work of Gunther Kress. New York: Routledge, Chap 4, pg 43-53
Publication year: 2013

Full title: Multimodality and social semiosis: Communication, meaning-making, and learning in the work of Gunther Kress. Routledge, pp. 43-53

Gunther Kress has long argued (1989, 1997, 2003, 2010b) that people actively make the signs they use. They do not just recover them from a passive store in their heads. We humans are active designers. Very young children, as Kress (1997) has shown, actively invent signs that are “apt” for their purposes (e.g., a child making a circular drawing motion to “signal” a wheel or using a word like “goed”). But, as I read him, Kress also argues that proficient users of language and images also create signs apt for their purposes on the spot and at the moment of communication in specific contexts.