James Paul Gee
Schallert, D. L., Hoffman, J. V., Maloch, B. E., Worthy, J. E., & Fairbanks, C. M. (n.d.). 51St Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (San Antonio, Texas, December 5-8, 2001)., pp. 23-32
Publication year: 2001

I want to talk about one particularly important type of learning: learning to be fluent in what I will call a “semiotic domain”. A semiotic domain recruits one or more modalities (e.g., oral or written language, images, equations, symbols, sounds, gestures, graphs, artifacts, and so forth) to communicate distinctive types of messages. By the word “fluent” I mean that the learner achieves some degree of mastery, not just rote knowledge. Here are some examples of semiotic domains: cellular biology, postmodern literary criticism, first-person shooter video games, advertisements, Roman Catholic theology, modernist painting, midwifery, and so on and so forth through a nearly endless and motley list.